Study: There is an urgent need for new effective antibiotics
During the last decade, both the total consumption of antibiotics and the consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics have decreased in Finland. Despite this, resistance of intestinal bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, has increased in Finland. As a result, we quickly need efficient antibiotics with a new mechanism of action on the market.
Two recent studies (Pyörälä, et al. 2022, Parviainen, et al. 2019) studied the consumption of antibiotics in outpatient care among the entire Finnish population during nearly a decade. The studies used information about the purchase of medicine reimbursable through Kela’s health insurance and the costs of medicine reimbursement.
The study results show that Finland has succeeded in reducing both the total consumption of antibiotics and the consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Despite the good results, other research data shows that, during the same time period, extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli has become more prevalent both in Finland and elsewhere around the world. The studies estimate that the role of gram-negative intestinal bacteria as a threat to life has become very significant on a global scale. In 2022, the joint report published by the European Medicines Agency estimates that antimicrobial resistance has become a silent pandemic.
New methods of treatment for infections are needed quickly
Based on recent research data, the controlled use of antibiotics is not enough to keep antibiotic resistance in check. To avoid the lack of antibiotics and safeguard modern health care, we quickly need efficient anti-bacterial antibiotics with a new mechanism of action and new methods for the treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, the old narrow-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against certain bacteria, such as penicillin, as well as narrow-spectrum drugs for urinary tract infection must be kept on the market.
“Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat to both human and animal health”, says Eija Pelkonen, Fimea’s Director General.
“Without an extensive set of means and global cooperation, the availability of antibiotics can become a crisis in the next few years. With the increase of antimicrobial resistance, our health care would return back to the time when antibiotics had not been discovered yet. This would mean that even normal infections would once again be fatal to patients.”
Drug development requires financial investment from society
In their joint report, European Medicines Agency (EMA), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) take a stand on the threat of antibiotic resistance and emphasise that strong international political will and financial commitment by various actors in society are needed to control the situation and gain new methods of treatment. Academic research requires financing, and the pharmaceutical industry requires financial incentives to continue the development of antibiotics to finally introduce new effective treatments for bacterial infections on the market after a wait of several years.
In Finland, there is a national expert group of antimicrobial resistance control (MTKA) which includes representatives from various administrative branches. The expert group has published an action plan on antimicrobial resistance for 2017–2021 and is currently updating the plan.
Parviainen S, Saastamoinen L, Lauhio A, Sepponen K. Outpatient antibacterial use and costs in children and adolescents: a nationwide register-based study in Finland, 2008–16. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 2019. Published on 8 May 2019
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